Assessing & Addressing Dyslexia

Importance of Early Screening

Ending the Dyslexia Paradox

Early screening identifies at risk students in Kindergarten (screening is not a diagnosis). Screening is important because it can help to identify the weaknesses in the sub-skills of reading that impact decoding and oral language skills. Screening is not a diagnosis.

Screens should include: Phonemic Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Rapid Auto Naming Skills

Students with dyslexia may also have Developmental Language Disorder. It is important to screen for both. Learn more Screening for DLD .

Tier 1 Instruction should use a Structured Literacy Approach to teach all children the alphabetic code as a preventative approach to dyslexia (dyslexia never goes away, but the symptoms can be reduced with appropriate instruction and intervention).

Early Literacy Screeners

Comprehensive list of early literacy screeners compiled by Dr. Nadine Gaab. Excellent resource for schools.

Evaluating Early Literacy Screeners

Academic Screening Tools Chart

Understanding Reading Challenges with the Simple View of Reading

Struggling Reader Profiles

Dyslexic

        • Adequate language comprehension, but poor word-level reading skills.
        • Students have difficulty sounding out words and mapping words to their orthographic lexicon (long-term memory for stored words) for instant word recognition as a result of poor phonological awareness. Students also struggle with reading fluency and spelling.
        • These students often have poor phonemic awareness.
        • Compensator- student displays a mild form of the dyslexic pattern but compensates to some degree with strong language skills, making this problem more difficult to recognize.
        • Dyslexia is part of a literacy continuum. Cut off percentages for diagnosis are arbitrary and vary from state to state. A child just above the cut-off will still struggle to read. Therefore, early screening and scientifically based reading instruction are very important to students who struggle with word-level reading. Poor phonemic awareness, a struggle to read non-words, and slow RAN should be considered a warning. "On the Reality of Dyslexia"
        • Intervention must include multi-sensory explicit systematic phonics and should included phonemic awareness practice until students gain advanced phonemic proficiency. Guided reading and Three-Cueing do not address the core deficits for a dyslexic student.

Hyperlexic

Mixed-Type


Dyslexia and the RTI/MTSS Process

Comprehensive Guide from

Tennessee Center for the Study and Treatment of Dyslexia

Dyslexia_within_RTI.pdf

Testing and Evaluation

  • The article, "Testing and Evaluation" from the International Dyslexia Association website is a holistic and powerful guide on testing and evaluations to help identify dyslexic students. (Click on title to redirect to article).


  • SLD/Dyslexia Assessment Resource Guide from the CT Department of Education. Describes testing and evaluations to help identify dyslexic students. These tests help identify core deficits, so appropriate evidence-based interventions can be used for students with dyslexia.


"There is general agreement that specific learning disabilities (SLDs), such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia, are heterogeneous disorders that impact skill acquisition and performance in reading, writing, and mathematics. SLDs may coexist with other conditions, including but not limited to communication disorders, disorders of attention, or giftedness."

Things to Consider

  • Addressing reading difficulties begins with Tier 1 instruction. K-3 literacy should include structured literacy as defined by the IDA. A systematic, explicit, and multi-sensory approach to reading. Learn more about structured literacy programs.


  • Early screening is the best predictor of students who will go on to have reading disabilities.


  • Highly trained teachers using evidence-based interventions with fidelity will lead to literacy for all.


  • Address school-based biases when it come to assessments and interventions for black, brown, and multi-lingual students. If a child has the makers of dyslexia do not make assumptions, these students deserve to be evaluated for RAN/Phonological deficits.


  • Use the Simple View of Reading as part of the RTI (Response to Intervention) referral Process. RTI remediation strategies often lead to a "wait to fail" reality for dyslexic students. If teachers understood dyslexia and the symptoms, effective Tier 2 & 3 interventions can be easier to implement (intensive systematic multi-sensory intervention).


  • If a child is placed on a Personal Literacy Plan (PLP) in Rhode Island they should be screened for phonemic awareness and phonological weaknesses before trying any intervention! Guided reading interventions do not address the core deficit for dyslexic children.


  • Review Child's developmental history.


  • Consider family history of struggling students. Dyslexia runs in families.


  • Use the recommended diagnostic tests to identify dyslexia (Note: there is no single dyslexic test! Evaluations should include testing, classroom observations, and curriculum based class work. They all play an important part in identifying a dyslexic student).


  • Evaluations for Dyslexia should include: intelligence, oral language skills, word identification, decoding, spelling/encoding, phonological processing, automaticity/fluency skills, reading comprehension, vocabulary (reading and listening task). (Source: IDA),


  • Teachers can work with literacy interventionists and instructional coaches to meet the needs of their dyslexic students.


Writing and Encoding Struggles

Intervention Resources

The greatest tool a struggling student can have is a highly qualified and trained teacher in structured literacy. "A box" is not an appropriate plan without training and coaching support.

The IDA Handbook on Dyslexia

This handbook created by the International Dyslexia Association is a great tool to empower teachers and staff about dyslexia. Please share with your child's school. (Click the title to be redirected to PDF).

Webinars and Videos

Writing IEP Goals